ANTECEDENTS

Written Script

Amar-Suen, “Cuneiform Tablets: From the Reign of Gudea of Lagash to Shalmanassar III” Library of Congress, 2039 B.C., http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?intldl/cunei:@FIELD(DOCID+@BAND(@lit(amcune000013))) (accessed April 10, 2011).

The earliest form of written script was cuneiform script which was developed around 3000 B.C. It has been shown that the cuneiform writing system was built on an earlier token system which has so far been traced back 10,000 years. 1 Many of these early written scripts were pictoral images. The development of an alphabet began in Egypt around 2000 B.C. 2 Many alphabets were created throughout the times and the most recognizable to the English alphabet are the Greek alphabet and the Latin alphabet which derives from the Greek. Hand written script is a way of communication for humans and is important especially in gaining perspectives of the past.

Printing Press

Johnson, Fry & Co., “Invention of printing – Gutenberg taking the first proof,” Library of Congress, 1863, http://memory.loc.gov/ (accessed March 30, 2011).

The printing press was developed in Germany around 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg. It was very influential in increasing literacy, as it began publishing the bible in the vernacular and as it lead to the mass production of books. It works by the type being arranged in the order into a frame, inked, and them pressed onto paper between the frame and another two frames which hold the paper in place.

Typographer

Typographer

William Burt, “Typographer Patent,” United States Patent Office, 1829, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Typographer_patent_1829.jpg (accessed March 30, 2011).

William Burt developed the typographer in 1829. It was very similar to the typewriter except instead of using keys, it used a dial to type. 3 The typist had to chose each individual character and place it in place. It took too long to type on this machine, and was very much slower than handwriting.

  1. Richard Rudgley, The Lost Civilizations of the Stone Age (New York: Touchstone, 1999), 261.
  2. “Alphabets and Writing.” Development of the Alphabet, The Origin of Print Culture, Alphabets Versus Other Writing Systems. Available from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/6417/Alphabets-and-Writing.html . Internet; accessed 30 March 2011.
  3. Bruce Bliven, The Wonderful Typewriting Machine (New York: Random House, 1954), 29-30.

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